Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Criminal Justice System and Terrorism

The Criminal Justice System and Terrorism Terrorism has become a part of up to date life. Hijackings, bombings, and assassinations on distinct countries of the world may appear like isolated attacks, but they contemplate a so straightforward reliance on aggression as a way to encourage communal, political, and devout change. They are components of a pervasive end supports the means beliefs being pursued to its most perverse conclusions. Many of these actions have been conveyed out by the constituents of Islamic Jihad, while other ones are part of a worldwide mesh of terrorists. Claire Sterling contends in The Terror Network that numerous of the terrorists were taught and equipped by KGB agencies from the previous Soviet Union. Analysis Terrorism has become the scourge of popular governments. Experts in the area approximate that less than 1 per hundred of terrorist attacks occurred in the Soviet Union, but as asserted by Rand Corporation professional Brian Jenkins, almost a third of all terrorists attacks engage Americans. Democratic authorities, used to considering inside a lawful structure, often find it tough to deal with criminals and terrorists who regularly function out-of-doors of the law. Yet deterrence is just as much a part of fairness as correct enforcement of the laws. Democratic authorities which manage not discourage criminals inescapably spawn vigilantism as commonly law-abiding people, who have lost self-assurance in the criminal justice system, take the regulation into their own hands. An alike backlash is starting to appear as an outcome of the incompetence of Western democracies to fight back themselves contrary to terrorists. But need of governmental determination is only part of the problem. Terrorists flourish on newspapers exposure, and report associations round the world have been all too eager to give terrorists what they crave: publicity. If the report newspapers provided terrorists the minuscule treatment their figures and leverage claimed, terrorism would decline. But when hijackings and bombings are granted famous newspapers vigilance, authorities start feeling force from their people to determination the urgent position and finally capitulate to terrorists demands. Encouraged by their newest achievement, terrorists generally trial again. Appeasement, Churchill wisely documented, habitually whets the appetite, and latest achievements have made terrorists famished for more attacks. Some report commentators have been reluctant to call terrorism what it is: wanton, criminal violence. They blunt the barbarism by contending that one mans terrorist is another mans flexibility fighter. But this easily is not true. Terrorists are not worried about human privileges and human dignity. In detail, they end up decimating human privileges in their supposed battle for human rights. Terrorism has been called the new warfare. But terrorists turn the idea of conflict on its head. Innocent non-combatants become the goal of terrorist attacks. Terrorist warfare retains blameless persons hostage and makes fighter and citizen alike promise goals for their aggression. Terrorism will extend even though conflict has not ever been formally been announced and our foe is not a lone identifiable country. Instead we are being victimized by a worldwide terror mesh angled on crippling American morale. Government and War First, we should characterize a terrorist. Is a terrorist a widespread criminal? If terrorists are only widespread criminals, then biblically talking, they should only be administered with by their owner governments. In Romans 13, the Apostle Paul states, he who opposes administration has are against the ordinance of God; and they who have are against will obtain disapproval upon themselves. For rulers is not an origin of worry for good demeanor, but for evil. Do you desire to have no worry of authority? Do what is good and you will have applauded from the same; for it is a minister of God to you for good. But if you manage what is bad, be afraid; for it does not accept the sword for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who adds anger upon the one who practices evil. This route of Scripture assists us make a significant distinction we will use in our investigation of terrorism. The Apostle Pauls teachings on government displays that criminals are those who manage bad and intimidate the municipal peace. Any out-of-doors risk to the reality of the state is not a criminal risk but a proceed of conflict which is furthermore to be administered with by the government. In other phrases, criminals intimidate the state from within. Foreign detachments intimidate the state from outside. In the case of searching household calm, the Apostle Paul summaries how authorities will accept of good works, but that authorities should convey worry to those who are wrongdoers. Evildoers should reside in worry of government. But in the case at hand, terrorists manage no reside in worry of the ruling administration in the nations where they live. Their authorities manage not believe of them as shattering citizen regulations and therefore manage not prosecute them. This is foreign to the American mindset. If an anti-Syrian terrorist assembly were founded in the United States, we would prosecute those terrorists as foes of the state. A U.S. founded anti-Syrian terrorist assembly would be illicit in the United States. And they would be illicit since theyre bearing out undertakings booked for Congress and the President. Only authorities have a foreign principle and war-making strategies. But Middle Eastern authorities manage not prosecute terrorists the way we would. Why? Because terrorists often convey out principles and yearns of such owner governments. Middle Eastern terrorists, far from fearing the sword of the ruling administration, rather than are often granted sanctuary by such governments. Governments who give sanctuary and even give acceptance have often taken up the mind-set that terrorists manage them no damage so why should they proceed contrary to the terrorist organizations? In detail, they are not glimpsed as a risk because terrorist assemblies are portraying out the owner governments policies. Both the terrorist assemblies and their owner countries are really foes of the American government when they arrest and murder U.S. citizens for infantry and foreign principle purposes. This is not citizen killing, but infantry warfare. Police, Court, and Correctional Systems   Ã‚  Ã‚   Every kind of scheme Common, Civil, Socialist, Islamic has localized variation.   Even in English-speaking nations, for demonstration, there is variation.   Canadian fairness locations more focus upon the right to a equitable test, free from prejudicial publicity.   In Canada, the public and the newspapers are generally ostracized from the courtroom, and there is little concern in misdeed news.   In England, there is more focus upon fairness in judgment, and producing certain the at fault dont proceed free.   English policeman dossiers along with two kinds of solicitors (solicitors and barristers) and two kinds of enclosures (Magistrate and Crown) assist double-check this.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Police schemes are rather distinct round the world.   With the exclusions of Japan and the Common Law countries, couple of nations contain their policeman agents firmly accountable for violations of municipal rights.   In Socialist and Islamic nations, the policeman contain tremendous political and devout powers.   In detail, in such locations, misdeed is habitually glimpsed as political misdeed and a co-occurring devout problem.   Police universal are the most evident (and accountable) emblems of criminal fairness, so one universal finding is that when policeman go incorrect to command misdeed, casual procedures of regulation (vigilante policing and community courts) are inclined to arise.   Other universal outcome encompass the detail that minorities universal appear to distrust policeman, and that the American discovery of community policing doesnt move well to other nations because it arrives off as too omnipresent (Braga et al. 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚   Court schemes of the world are of two types: adversarial, where the suspect is blameless until verified guilty; and inquisitorial, where the suspect is at fault until verified blameless or mitigated.   The U.S. adversarial scheme is exclusive in the world.   No other territory, not even the U.K., locations as much focus upon conclusion of factual guilt in the courtroom as the U.S. does.   Outside the U.S., most tests are worried with lawful guilt where every individual understands the lawbreaker did it, and the reason is to get the lawbreaker to acknowledge, own up to their blame, contend for clemency, or propose an befitting judgment for themselves.   Inquisitorial schemes have more mystery procedures.   Outside of the United States, one is probable to meet community (or neighborhood-focused) enclosures which offer an array of non-conventional, alternate sanctions.  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   Correctional schemes worldwide can be equitably effortlessly differentiated by if they support corporal penalty (beatings) or not.   Some so-called civilized nations that assertion they are better than the U.S. because they dont have the death punishment frequently perform such corporal penalties as beatings and whippings.   Nations that perform corporal penalty manage are inclined, although, to have less of a correctional overcrowding problem.   Probation and parole, where they live cross-culturally, are inclined to be accessible only for native people, and not for foreigners neither immigrants.   Outside of the United States, jails are inclined to be less sanitary and unhealthy.  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   Juvenile Justice Systems alter widely.   Scotland has the toughest scheme, frequently judgment juveniles to rough boot bivouacs with a firm infantry regiment and compelled labor.   Germany has a juvenile justice system alike to the U.S., but there is more focus upon education.   Not every homeland in the world accepts as factual in exceptional management of juveniles, neither the notion of adolescence. Military Action Based upon the Apostle Pauls educating of government in Romans 13, terrorists should be classified as widespread criminals in their owner countries. But they are not prosecuted by owner nations and are often bearing out the infantry principle and foreign principle of that country. Thus, when terrorists strike, we should not outlook them as criminals but as foreign fighters who try to intimidate the very reality of the American government. Whether or not the terrorists have the firepower and strategic wisdom to really destabilize the U.S. government is not the issue. At topic is how to deal with a new kind of infantry aggressor. Terrorists are not widespread criminals to be endeavored in American municipal courts. They are infantry goals that should be halted since they are equipped and infantry foes of the American government who are on attack. Yes, America has other equipped foes, but they are not on the strike as terrorists are. In the identical way that it took customary detachments some time to discover how to battle guerilla warfare, so it is taking Western authoritys time to recognize that the directions for warfare have furthermore been modified in the case of terrorism. Diplomatic efforts have failed to assure Middle East authorities to assist the United States in conveying terrorist assemblies to justice. Meetings and discussions havent been adept to hit worry in terrorists hearts. When we battle terrorism we require recognizing we are conversing about war. Military warfare is distinct from citizen peacekeeping. In citizen peacekeeping, persons are presumed blameless until verified guilty. A civilian can be apprehended and detained before test, but should be issued except guilt is proven. Military warfare is different. A test is not held for each infantry action. In a sense, in a just conflict, a trial of kinds is held before any activity is taken. Discussion and arguments amidst congressmen and senators generally happen before conflict is declared. Fact-finding investigations, productions, testimonies, and other types of forethought proceed into a affirmation of war. In a sense, when the use of the infantry is engaged, the test time span arrives before any individual is battled or arrested. But one time conflict is announced, there are nothing less tests until the foe is defeated. And every one who aids and abets the foe is at fault by association. At present, terrorism is a one-sided conflict that the United States is losing. American fighters and people are being slain in the war. Unfortunately, the United State is not healing terrorism like war. The restricted conflict forces conceded to the President by the Congress are not sufficient and arent utilized in a methodical way to beat the enemy. If we are to win the conflict contrary to terrorism, we should recognize that it is war. Until we glimpse it as infantry aggression, we will be failed in finish terrorism in this decade. Constitutional Issues Terrorist assemblies are not dwelling in worry of their owner governments. Instead, law-abiding people reside in worry of terrorist groups. In one television interview a Middle Eastern terrorist was cited as saying, We desire the persons of the United States to seem the terror. The proficiency of these assemblies to convey out their agenda is not the issue. The basic topic is how U.S. government managers should deal with this new kind of infantry strategy. Terrorists have held American diplomats hostage for years, blown up infantry mixtures, and hijacked airplanes and cruise ships. Although some hostages have been issued, numerous other ones have been slain and the U.S. has been failed at penalizing more than a little number of terrorists. Although worldwide diplomacy has been the prime entails utilized by the United States contrary to terrorism, we should address what other entails may furthermore be appropriate. In the past, American managers have answered to infantry aggression in a kind of modes short of affirming war. The U.S. Constitution allocations the next forces to Congress: To characterize and penalize piracies and felonies pledged on the high oceans, and infringements contrary to the regulation of nations; to affirm conflict, allocate notes of marque and retaliation, and make directions in relative to captures on land and water. Terrorist actions drop into not less than two of the Congressional provisions for considering with attacks on the nation. They are: (1) to penalize infringements contrary to the regulation of countries, and (2) to affirm war. In either case, there are powerful Constitutional surrounds for taking activity contrary to terrorists. The adversity arrives in apparently recognizing the foe and being eager to risk offending numerous Arab countries who we address allies. Congress should recognize the foe and call that assembly a infantry target. Once that has occurred numerous of the other steps drop into location with less difficulty. At this issue infantry scheme should be established which can search down little assemblies of well-armed and well-funded men who conceal inside the territory of a owner country. We should furthermore evolve a political scheme that will permit us to work inside a owner country. We should make it clear how grave the United States takes a terrorist threat. American people are exhausted of being infantry goals in an undeclared war. Through diplomatic passages we should make two things very clear to the owner country. First, they should apprehend and penalize the terrorist assemblies themselves as citizen criminals. Or, second, they should extradite the foe fighters and give them up to an worldwide court for trial. If the owner homeland falls short to proceed on these two demands, we should make it clear that we glimpse them in complicity with the terrorist groups. But falling short to work out their municipal blame, they depart themselves open to the penalties of permitting hostile infantry forces inside their borders. Intelligence Collection   The criminal justice system has been the source of exceedingly precious understanding on al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations.   The criminal justice system presents mighty inducements for supposes to supply unquestionable, dependable data, and the Department of Justice and FBI work nearly with remainder of the understanding community to maximize data and understanding got from each cooperator.   Below are just a couple of public examples. Cooperators Provide Intelligence on al-Qaeda and Other Terror Groups   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   LHoussaine Kherchtou, who was apprehended, Mirandized, ascribed with terrorism infringements, and cooperated with the government, supplied critical understanding on al-Qaeda.   He testified in 2001 contrary to four al-Qaeda constituents who were subsequent punished to life in jail after being convicted in attachment with the East Africa Embassy bombings.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   After his arrest in Afghanistan, John Walker Lindh pleaded at fault in 2002 to carrying the Taliban and, as part of his plea affirmation, supplied precious understanding about teaching bivouacs and battling in Afghanistan.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   Mohammed Junaid Babar, apprehended in 2004 for carrying al Qaeda and contriving attacks in the United Kingdom, has supplied understanding on terrorist assemblies functioning along the Afghanistan/Pakistan boundary and has testified in the thriving tests of terrorists in the United Kingdom and Canada.   He is arranged to testify in another terrorism test in New York subsequent this year.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   David Headley, apprehended in 2009 and ascribed in attachment with a contrive to blasting apparatus a Danish bulletin and his supposed function in the November 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai, has supplied exceedingly precious understanding considering those attacks, the terrorist association Lashkar y Tayyiba, and Pakistan-based terrorist leaders.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   Adis Medunjanin, an supposed aide of Najibullah Zazi, was taken into custody in January 2010, and, after waiving his Miranda privileges, supplied comprehensive data to the FBI about terrorist-related undertakings of himself and other ones in the United States and Pakistan.   He has been ascribed with conspiring to murder U.S. nationals overseas and obtaining military-type teaching from al-Qaeda.   Ã‚  Ã‚   * Other regulation enforcement cooperators are actually supplying significant understanding considering terrorist undertaking from East Africa to South Asia and considering plots to strike the United States and Europe. Incapacitating Terrorists Hundreds of terrorism supposes have been effectively prosecuted in government court since 9/11.   Today, there are more than 300 worldwide or household terrorists incarcerated in U.S. government jail facilities.   Events over the past year illustrate the extending worth of government enclosures in tackling terrorism.   In 2009, there were more defendants ascribed with terrorism violations in government court than in any year since 9/11.   Past Terrorism Convictions and Recent Terrorism Indictments   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   Richard Reid was apprehended in December 2001 and convicted pursuant to a at fault plea in October 2002 of trying to ignite a footwear blasting apparatus while on a air journey from Paris to Miami bearing 184 travelers and 14 crewmembers.   He is assisting a life jail term.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   Ahmed Omar Abu Ali was convicted in November 2005 of conspiracy to assassinate the U.S. President and conspiracy to consign air piracy and conspiracy to decimate aircraft. Ali was punished to 30 years in prison.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   In May 2006, Zacharias Moussaoui was punished to life in jail after pleading at fault to diverse terrorism violations, confessing that he conspired with al-Qaeda to hijack and smash into planes into famous U.S. structures as part of the 9/11 attacks.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   In September 2009, Najibullah Zazi was ascribed with conspiring to use a tool for fighting of mass decimation as part of an al-Qaeda contrive blasting apparatus goals in the United States. Several of his supposed aides have been apprehended and ascribed in government court.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   During 2009, 14 persons were ascribed in the District of Minnesota attachment with an ongoing enquiry of persons who have traveled from Minnesota to Somalia to train with or battle on behalf of the terrorist assembly al-Shabaab.   Ã‚  Ã‚   *   In September 2009, Daniel Patrick Boyd and other ones were ascribed with contriving an strike on U.S. infantry staff at the Quantico Marine Base, as well as employing juvenile persons to journey overseas in alignment to kill. Just Punishment Although diplomacy has its location, it is so straightforward to glimpse that diplomacy and discussion manage not hit worry in the hearts of terrorists. Yes, American hostages in Iran were finally issued after 444 days. But other American hostages like Lt. Col. Williams Higgins were slain by Lebanese Shiite terrorists. In most situations, diplomatic efforts have failed to convey terrorists to justice. We have shown overhead that Romans 13 devotes government the right to accept the sword to defend its people from criminal risks from inside the homeland and infantry risks from out-of-doors the country. We have furthermore shown that infantry activity is furthermore sanctioned to penalize piracies and felonies and to penalize offenses contrary to the regulation of nations. With this as backdrop, we should now aim on the topic of just penalty which is recounted in Exodus 21. The standard here is that the penalty should be proportional to the crime. A referee could not cut up off a mans hand only because he rubbed another mans hand in a fight. The penalty was to be: set alight for set alight, wound for wound, and band of color for stripe. Excessive penalties were forbidden. Punishment was swift and certain, but it was furthermore equitable and proportional. Just and proportional penalties have been the form for both criminal and infantry punishments. Not that all countries have pursued this rule. But the United States should set up the lesson pitch by next this biblical principle. In the context of our consideration on terrorism, I accept as factual that we should request proportional penalty to terrorists and owner countries. First, this entails that we should not request too critical a punishment. Calls for bombing towns of owner nations in retaliation for terrorist activities should be turned down as unsuitable and unjust. But this furthermore entails we should not request too lightweight a punishment. Host countries that harbor terrorists and deny penalizing or extraditing terrorists should be forced by the United States. Punishment could arrive in the pattern of financial embargoes, import- trade items limits, severing diplomatic relatives, or even infantry actions. But the penalty should be proportional to the terrorist act. Excessive answer or retaliation will not only be unjust, but it will fuel the blazes of anti-American sentiment. In some situations, an American hit force of counterterrorists might be essential when the risk is both genuine and imminent. This should be the choice of last holiday resort, but in certain examples it may be necessary. In 1989, for demonstration, Israeli exceptional forces apprehended Sheik Obeid and no question crippled the terrorist mesh by conveying one of their managers to justice. In 1985, U.S. planes were adept to force an Egyptian airliner down to avert the getaway of another terrorist leader. These are admittedly actions which should be finished seldom and carefully. But they may be befitting entails to convey about justice. Conclusion In deduction, I accept as factual we should identify terrorism as a new kind of infantry aggression which needs governmental action. We are engaged in an undeclared conflict and Congress and the President should take the identical kinds of activities they would if endangered by a hostile country. We should work to discourage farther terrorist aggression in this decade. The best way to apply such a scheme would be through some kind of focused nationwide security court, an concept other ones have suggested with changing grades of specificity. Modeled on the exceptional court that authorizes surveillance in nationwide security situations, such an placement would maximize the public and worldwide legitimacy of detention decisions. It would put detentions in the hands of referees with all the prestige of the government court scheme yet with specific know-how applying directions conceived to defend classified data and organize legitimate security concerns. Such a court is furthermore, in m y outlook, the best venue in which to trial terrorists suspect of conflict misdeeds, utilizing directions that hybridize the present Military Commissions Act with usual government court practice. In addition, the present administrations reliance on a untainted regulation of conflict form for detentions has been a fateful error. But the try to revert to a prosecutorial form for handicapping terrorists would supplant that mistake with a scheme unsuited to the trials we actually face as a society. The right response is-as it has been since September 11-to conceive the detention scheme we require to handle the exclusive position of international jihadist terrorism. That is a task only Congress can complete and it is long overdue.

Friday, September 20, 2019

FMCG Market Analysis

FMCG Market Analysis EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. Penetration level as well as per capita consumption in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low indicating the untapped market potential. Burgeoning Indian population, particularly the middle class and the rural segments, presents an opportunity to makers of branded products to convert consumers to branded products. Growth is also likely to come from consumer upgrading in the matured product categories. With 200 million people expected to shift to processed and packaged food by 2010, India needs around US$ 28 billion of investment in the food-processing industry. Rapid urbanization, increased literacy and rising per capita income, have all caused rapid growth and change in demand patterns, leading to an explosion of new opportunities. Around 45 per cent of the population in India is below 20 years of age and the young population is set to rise further. Aspiration levels in this age group have been fuelled by greater media exposure, unleashing a latent  demand with more money and a new mindset. The importance of consumer sales promotion in the marketing mix of the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) category throughout the world has increased. Companies spend considerable time in planning such activities. However, in order to enhance the effectiveness of these activities, manufacturers should understand consumer and retailer interpretations of their promotional activities so that appropriate differentiation can be used. Retailers stated that role of word of mouth and television advertising was very important in providing information inputs to the consumers regarding sales promotion activities. This perception of retailers was supported by the consumer unaided recall of sales promotion schemes which were widely advertised. The research concludes with the discussion of the results, managerial implications limitation of the study and future research directions. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I. ABOUT THE DISSERTATION INTRODUCTION Advertisements convey brand differentiation and this may be important in several categories, which consist of several brands. In FMCG products like tea, coffee and detergents, â€Å"differentiation awareness† can be created by television advertising, but in certain categories there may be a need to demonstrate the effectiveness of brands. Differentiation with which consumers cannot â€Å"connect† may have a negative implication and if a brand â€Å"connects† consumers with its differentiation, it is likely to also differentiate itself in terms of getting identified with the consumer. A detergent or a washing machine, which claims â€Å"low water consumption† has to demonstrate this claim at a retail outlet especially given the fact that the quality of water varies across areas even in a specific geographical region. It is also essential that a good â€Å"differentiation proposition† result in a positive word-of-mouth. In a certain situation, the company may have two offerings in a product-line and there is a need to differentiate them clearly depending on the target segments involved. This is a complex situation where differentiation decides the growth of the brand and the perceived difference between the offerings. An added layer to the complexity is the same brand name being used for the offerings. Fairness cream is a category in which the benefit is the fairness of the complexion. A brand like Fair and Lovely built over the years still has a strong association with the category but under tremendous pressure from competitive brands and the most important criteria which these brands is the herbal touch associated with them. Herbal ingredients are becoming popular with consumers in several categories and personal care in India has a strong tradition of herbal care. Fair and Lovely had to launch its herbal variant (it used the same brand probably because of the brand equity built up over the years) . The interesting fact is the differentiation being conveyed by advertising. The original version uses an aspiration route in which the brands ultimate benefit is success through confidence. Estimates based on Chinas current per capita Consumption, the Indian FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. The dominance of Indian markets by unbranded products, change in eating habits and the increased affordability of the growing Indian population presents an opportunity to makers of branded products, who can convert  consumers to branded products. Penetration level in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low. The contrast is particularly striking between the rural and urban segments the average consumption by rural households is much lower than their urban counterparts. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated markets, which are likely to expand as the income levels rise. This provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in the form of a vastly untapped market. Moreover, per capita consumption in most of the FMCG categories (including the high penetration categories) in India is low as compared to both the developed markets and other emerging economies. A rise in per capita consumption, with improvement in incomes and affordability and change in tastes and preferences, is further expected to boost FMCG demand. Growth is also likely to come from consumer upgrading, especially in the matured product categories. CHAPTER 2 I. LITERATURE REVIEW Impact of Effective Advertisement on Consumer Attitude Dr. F.R. Alexander Pravin Durai By going through this article I have come across some points which you should look upon. If you want to read the article it is present in the appendix. Following are some points:- Advertising is the only direct method which helps to reach masses of potential buyers. Advertising, being dynamic, changes with changing methods of distribution and consumption. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements playa major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and · also the consumption pattern of the society in general. Thus, the impact leads to cultural and social changes to a great extent. Why is there a need of advertising? Advertising is a way of communicating information to the consumer which enables him or her to compare and choose from the products and services available. Advertising is the most economical means by which a manufacturer or an Institutional body can communicate to an audience whether to sell a product or promote a cause of social welfare. Essentials of Effective Advertisement-the writer thinks that there are 4 important things for an advertisement to be effective. They are importance of claim, believable, uniqueness and repetition. The advertiser must constantly assess the situation to choose the right environment and ideal time for an advertisement to be launched. Some of the situations are as follows:- When there is a favorable primary demand of particular product. When there is a distinctive product differentiation from other competitive brands. When mass market is penetrated. In order to ensure that the advertisements reach the target consumers in a most effective way and gets right response from them, it has to be ensuring that such advertisements are presented in the right way. The following steps on the part of the consumer may ensure that the advertisements are on the right track. Getting attracted towards the advertisements. Listening and observing the contents of the advertisements in full. Continuous watching of the same over a period. Comparing the advertisements of similar products. Making a trial purchase as follow up activity. Assessing the level of utility of the product individually. Ascertaining the level of utility derived with other similar consumers. In the article Dr. Alexander Told about a model which exemplifies the attitude or response of a consumer to an advertisement. Techniques of advertising for Fast Moving Consumer Goods Dr. Archi Mathur- Assistant lecturer, Department of Management Studies, National Law University, Jodhpur Dr. HK Bedi- Professor, Dean, Department of Management Studies, National Law University, Jodhpur This article shows how an advertiser can use different techniques of advertisements to show FMCG products. The techniques are as follows: Value added ads- In addition to providing information about the product; Value-added advertising transforms a product into something more appealing to consumers than the physical object produced in the factory. Therefore, it is a missing link between brand attributes and the customer perception, between product features and need fulfillment, .between benefits and values. Comparative ads- the advertiser compares the 2 brands of the same product category. The ad can be copied as the Pepsi and sprite example in the case. They have used the same story but both have them had a different approach. Informative ads- these ads are used to provide information to the consumer about different products and services. Health and Hygiene ads- these ads show that the product is taking care of the consumers health. It is emphasizing of the physical attribute of the product. What does the product do? How does it help you? The ad tells you all. These are some of the techniques. Lifestyle ads- Another way to. nave an impact on the consumers mind is portraying the life-style of a successful person. Humorous ads- Humor in the advertisement is normally kept in order to create a light, jovial and likely kind of an atmosphere Demographic ads- these ads are meant for different segments based on age, sex etc. Farex Cereal Food for infants is an advertisement targeted directly towards the infants, as it comprises a healthy food for them. It is also targeted indirectly towards the mother. Packaging ads- Advertisement is trying to lure the customers to buy their products on the basis of the way they are brought in front of the consumers eyes ie. Packaging. Dabur has brought in different flavors in the market of fruit juice. E.g. Mango, Pineapple, Orange, Mixed Fruit Jete. All these are in different packages, i.e. 50 ml, 1000 ml, etc. They claim that unlike other juices, which have preservatives in them, these products are without preservatives. Hence, the punch line is Real Fruit Juice. Price ads- Marketers also lure the customers by showing in an advertisement that a product is available at a lesser price without any compromise on the standard. Cadbury India advertised the 5-Star chocolate by offering 30% more chocolate in its 5-Star bar for the same price. Celebrity ads- Celebrities are mainly used in the advertisement either to lure the rural people in buying a particular product or in forcing the young generation to buy the products. This is also called endorsement advertising.,{t is also used in portraying that a particular product is best inqtJality because a person who is also very well known in his/her field endorses it. The impact of these stars in advertisements enables the company to increase its sale. CHAPTER 3 I. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY II. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The main objectives of the study are: 1. To assess current consumer sales promotion schemes in the market 2. To assess how consumers differentiate the products based on advertisements 3. To get an insight into retailers views regarding the schemes being offered in toilet soap category, and consumer perceptions 4. To study consumer perceptions regarding various schemes in this category and responses toward them. 5. To study the various methods of differentiation. 6. To analyze the methodology adopted by companies to target end consumers. 7. To address basic business questions like: Do companies have the right product/service to offer? How companies reach their customers? How the buying power can be created? To prepare new business strategies RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology: Technique used for the survey is questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews. In order to address the above questions an exploratory study was conducted. The idea was to probe and get deeper insight into sales promotion scenario in toilet soap market and to tap perceptions of retailers and consumers. In order to address above mentioned objectives (i) study of secondary sources was carried out, 10(ii) in-depth interview of six retailers was undertaken and 11(iii) structured questionnaire was designed to seek consumer responses. Convenience sampling was used for both retailers as well as consumer studies. Six retailers ranging from small kirana store to supermarket were approached. All the retailers were located in the Noida. The respondents for consumer study were postgraduate students in the age group of 19-24 belonging to middle and upper middle and upper class. The total respondents were 30 in number. They were residing in hostel or as PG hence sole decision-makers for t his category. Also this age-group being more experimental and likely to be more deal prone, so their perceptions, preferences would give some insights to companies planning sales promotions targeted at them. Scope and Limitations: The geographical scope of the study was restricted to the NOIDA city due to time and resource constraints. The study being exploratory in nature, the sample size was restricted to 30 consumers (student group) and 6 retailers. Focus being mainly on in-depth probing, the generalizations drawn are only indicative and not conclusive. CHAPTER 3 I. FMCG AN INTRODUCTION II. INDIAN CONTEXT III. MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IV. EVOLUTION AND CHARECTERSTICS FMCG -FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS BRIEF DECRIPTION OF INDIA FMCG MARKET MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN FMCG: According to Estimates based on Chinas current per capita Consumption, the Indian FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. The dominance of Indian markets by unbranded products, change in eating habits and the increased affordability of the growing Indian population presents an opportunity to makers of branded products, who can convert consumers to branded products. Penetration level in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low. The contrast is particularly striking between the rural and urban segments the average consumption by rural households is much lower than their urban counterparts. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated markets, which are likely to expand as the income levels rise. This provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in the form of a vastly untapped market. Moreover, per capita consumption in most of the FMCG categories (including the high penetration categories) in India is low as compared to both the developed markets and other emerging economies. A rise in per capita consumption, with improvement in incomes and affordability and change in tastes and preferences, is further expected to boost FMCG demand. Growth is also likely to come from consumer upgrading, especially in the matured product categories EVOLUTION:  § 1950s-80s Low Investment in the sector Low purchasing power Govts emphasis on small scale sector HLL and other companys urbane focus  § Post liberalization Entry of MNCs Focus shifted to getting to rural consumer first Others, like Nestle, remained with the urban population Latest fad to hit the market is the ‘sachet bug.  § Mushrooming of regional brands Nirma enters and changes the focus to ‘Value for Money in the 70s Post liberalization, Jyothi Laboratories, ‘Ghari Detergent and ‘Anchor toothpaste giving the nation-wide brands a run for their money. CHARECTERSTICS: FORECAST 2010:  § Rural and semi-urban  § 128 million population thrice the urban  § Market size growth from 48k to 100k Crores (Growth of 50% at 10%CAGR)  § Increase penetration from the current less than 1%  § Problems in the rural sector * Low per capita disposable incomes * Large number of daily wage earners * Acute dependence on vagaries of monsoon * Seasonal consumption * Poor infrastructure roads and power supply  § Urban  § Market 16.5k to 35k Crores (Growth of 100% at 20%CAGR)  § Intense competition severe pressure on margins Focus on newer products, such as fruit juices Source: Assocham Report ‘Future Prospects of FMCG CHAPTER 5 I. UNDERSTANDING DIFFRENTIATION II. TYPES OF DIFFRENTIATION III. THE INDIAN CONTEXT I. II. UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENTIATION: Differentiation is the process of adding a set of meaningful and valued differences that distinguish a companys offering from those of its competitors. Differentiation is strongest when it satisfies all of the following criteria: 1. Important: the difference delivers a highly valued benefit to a sufficient number of buyers 2. Distinctive: the difference can be delivered in a clear way 3. Superior: the difference is a better way of obtaining a benefit 4. Pre-emptive: the difference cannot be easily copied 5. Affordable: the buyer can afford to pay for the difference 6. Profitable: the company will earn a return by maintaining the difference BRAND loyalty in fast moving consumer goods categories is a topical issue, with several brands resorting to price cuts across categories. More importantly, price cuts or sales promotion by themselves do not seem to have done much for brands in terms of sustaining brand loyalty. They may attract consumers in the short run: consumers may stock the brands and consumers new to the brand may try it. But over a period of time, a brands value may get diluted in consumers psyche, and will eventually lose a strong base of consumers. The following are some aspects of marketing mix elements and consumer behavior which could contribute to brand loyalty. Product differentiation If the products are differentiated in their characteristics and this difference is perceivable, there are chances of brand loyalty being formed based on satisfaction with greater performance or fit of product with needs. In this case, loyalty is driven by functional or symbolic benefits. Functional benefits would be specific tangible features of the product whereas symbolic benefits would be intangibles such as brand personality and `hedonistic value of purchase. Price differentiation If the price differentiation in the market is perceivable, price-led loyalty might exist in the market. Price-led loyalty is practised by supermarkets, airline companies and FMCG brands, which come out with frequent sales promotions based on freebies. Alternatively, price might be taken as an indicator of brand quality, and the customer might go in for higher priced options. Price-led loyalty has to be carefully considered with other marketing mix elements and the consumer should never perceive dilution, especially in low-priced bands. Hence, lower prices should create a sense of value through the product offerings as well as through communication. Branding activity If the category is organized and there is branding activity, there will be greater loyalty than there would have been if the category were unorganized. Branding activities can differentiate between brands on name, symbol, images and associations. Branding activity in this context refers to creating strong associations which will influence the consumers not only with regard to functional attributes but also with symbolism. Hamam soaps portrayal of its pure ingredients with the child and mother imagery is a good example of one of these dimensions. Branding activities in a broad sense could range from advertising to sales promotion and public relations involving several aspects. III. The Indian context The following were the observations from the literature survey and the examples chosen from the Indian context. The factors indicate that there will be a large segment of consumers for whom price-led loyalty will dominate. Hence there will be strong behavioural loyalty in the segment and only weak attitudinal loyalty. There is thus spurious loyalty in this sector. There is a moderate level of symbolic and functional differentiation which has been exploited by strong brands to build a loyal following. Examples of this include brands such as Dove, Ponds Dreamflower talcum powder, Gold Flake, Wills Navy Cut, Amul and Cadbury. These brands have probably built strong attitudinal loyalty through their brand personality and other brand building efforts. In the FMCG sector, brand habit is high whereas attitudinal loyalty is low. As creating attitudinal loyalty based on functional differentiation is difficult, symbolic differentiation is the key. Building strong brand personalities and associated symbolic benefits is important for crafting customer loyalty. The factors discussed cannot be treated in isolation: they are to provide a synergy to result in brand loyalty. The combination of these factors and the timing of the combination is the topical challenge which marketers face in an environment where loyalty is slowly eroding. Local challengers Some of the most successful FMCG brands in 2002 came, not from the stables of a Hindustan Lever and a Colgate, but from obscure regional players such as Kaleesuwari Refineries, Parakh Foods, Anchor Switchboards and Kanpur Detergents. Over the past couple of years, brands such as Gold Winner and Gemini in refined oils, Anchor White in toothpastes and Ghari in detergents have managed to sustain double digit growth rates, even as the market leaders have struggled to hold on to single digit growth rates for their brands. Yes, the comparison is unfair, as the local brands had a minuscule base to start with. But these brands have demonstrated it is not impossible for a new challenger to break into the traditional bastion of one or two large FMCG players. Traditionally, large FMCG categories in India have been dominated by just one or two players, who rule the roost by dint of their sheer financial muscle and distribution reach. But, of late, successful regional brands have been finding chinks in their armour. And how! Aggressive pricing In the edible oils market, as national players were forced to hike their selling prices in response to rising commodity prices, both Gemini and Gold Winner have used aggressive pricing to woo consumers away from the national brands. Packed tea too, has seen similar trends. The limited differentiation in grocery and the flexibility offered by a restricted area of operations have stood these companies in good stead. Anchor White, among the few debutants in the toothpaste market to garner a significant share, first wooed the retail trade with high distribution margins, and then used rock-bottom prices to lure consumers into trying the product. Though none of these companies can match the market leaders in adspend, they have used focused regional and local advertising to draw consumers attention to their brands. The mushrooming of local and regional media has undoubtedly helped the local players milk the most from their ad budgets. Banking on `power brands While the local brands have been adding to their brand portfolios, the market leaders have largely stayed off new product launches. In keeping with its power brand strategy, Hindustan Levers marketing strategies in 2002 revolved around rejigging and relaunching established brands such as Lifebuoy, Rin, Surf and Vim. The company phased out brands such as Sunlight in detergents, and Jai in toilet soaps, so as to focus better on its 30 power brands. The strategy appears to have worked, as brands such as Lifebuoy and Rin have moved into a higher growth trajectory after the relaunch. In fact, HLLs power brand strategy has found a few followers in the FMCG market, with companies such as Godrej Consumer also announcing plans to focus on a clutch of key brands. Streamlining and spend While the power brand strategy has helped the leading players put their marketing prowess behind their most important brands, it has not really helped them save on ad spend. For most FMCG companies, advertising and promotion spends in 2002 grew faster than their sales. In high penetration categories such as soaps, detergents and toothpastes, marketing efforts of the players revolved around persuading existing consumers to use more of the product or to upgrade to a higher-priced brand. The slew of 100 gm free for every 150 gm offers in toothpastes and the series of promos on the 2 kg packs of premium detergents were both intended to induce existing consumers of a product to pep up their usage of the brand. Companies operating in relatively low-penetration categories such as chocolates, shampoos and skin creams tailored their marketing strategies to bringing in new users, through scaled-down versions of their brands in affordable pack sizes. The low-priced Chocostik, a liquid chocolate in a small-sized pack, launched by Nestle India, has helped pep up the companys topline and is now a large contributor to the companys revenues. Nestle India is now trying out a similar small-sized Rs 5 pack for Maggi noodles. Shampoos have been among the few FMCG categories to register a positive growth rate in 2002, and growth in this category has been driven mainly by sachet packs and by scaled-down 50 ml bottles priced at less than Rs 10. Overall, the FMCG slowdown of the past three years has served a useful purpose. At one level, it has made sure that the dominant players in the market no longer enjoy unlimited pricing power, as they have in the past. There now appears to be a greater effort on the part of the players to hold selling prices and look at their own operations to save on cost. At another level, the emergence of the regional challengers has made sure that consumers of FMCG products have a few more choices in their purchases of essentials. Is selling soap the same as selling a TV? It isnt. The difference is how the particular product is sold and more importantly, how is it distributed. India is a unique market, where the manufacturers who deliver products at the doorstep, which is the ideal way to deliver anything, spoil our consumers. We have an extremely evolved distribution mechanism for most products. Different products are sent to the consumer differently. Depending on the number, the price of the product and the complexity of the selling process, they may vary from direct selling to selling through a channel that may have as many as four levels between the manufacturer and the consumer. A look at a few of them will show what it means to be a sales person of that product. Most FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) products are not hard-sold to the end consumers. Sales are built up largely by pull a technique using advertising and consumer promotion. The sell-in happens to the trade i.e. to various members of the distribution channel the CarryingForwarding/Super-stockist, the distributor, the wholesaler and most importantly the retailer, who is the interface with the end-consumer. This chain forms the most important link in getting the product economically to the consumers doorstep. A large MNC in the FMCG industry may be covering as many as 1 million outlets across the country with the help of thousands of distributors. Even a mid-sized company covers at the least 1 lakh outlets. Factoring in the vagaries of operating in more than 25 different states, each with its own sales tax complexities, different consumer needs, differences in the distribution structure, not forgetting differing octroi structures within a state, distribution is extremely complex in India. If the sell-in does not happen to this channel for whatever reason or is sub- optimal, a product is likely to fail. CHAPTER 3 I. UNDERSTANDING ADVERTISEMENT II. UNDERSTANDING SALES- PROMOTION III. CREATING DIFFRENTIATION THROUGH ADVERTISEMENT IV. PROBLEMS FACED BY MARKETERS I. UNDERSTANDING ADVERTISEMENTS Whether it is a serial in a regional satellite channel or a One Day International cricket match, there is a non-stop stream of advertisements, which clutter the commercial break. Well-established brands attempt to sustain brand recall while new ones try appealing to prospective consumers to get into their `consideration set. There are ads for children, housewives and youth. With advertising expenditure in the order of Rs. 8000 Crores per annum in the recent times and the proliferation of brands across categories, there is a strong need to consider the effectiveness of these advertisements. The idea is not to cease advertising but to consider how considering decisions would have to be considered with non-advertising alternatives. These non-advertising alternatives may also enable a brand to create and sustain consistent associations, which may be desirable in terms of long-term implications. A contemporary approach that creates a synergy between various aspects of a promotional mix (a dvertising included) provides a refreshing approach towards marketing communications. There may be several objectives of advertising and a promotional mix could be used in an innovative manner to address each of these objectives depending on the product category and target segment. Creating-brand-awareness When a new brand enters a category or creates a â€Å"new to the market† offering, it needs to create brand awareness. This would depend on whether the product is a consumable or a durable. The involvement level in a speci FMCG Market Analysis FMCG Market Analysis EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. Penetration level as well as per capita consumption in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low indicating the untapped market potential. Burgeoning Indian population, particularly the middle class and the rural segments, presents an opportunity to makers of branded products to convert consumers to branded products. Growth is also likely to come from consumer upgrading in the matured product categories. With 200 million people expected to shift to processed and packaged food by 2010, India needs around US$ 28 billion of investment in the food-processing industry. Rapid urbanization, increased literacy and rising per capita income, have all caused rapid growth and change in demand patterns, leading to an explosion of new opportunities. Around 45 per cent of the population in India is below 20 years of age and the young population is set to rise further. Aspiration levels in this age group have been fuelled by greater media exposure, unleashing a latent  demand with more money and a new mindset. The importance of consumer sales promotion in the marketing mix of the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) category throughout the world has increased. Companies spend considerable time in planning such activities. However, in order to enhance the effectiveness of these activities, manufacturers should understand consumer and retailer interpretations of their promotional activities so that appropriate differentiation can be used. Retailers stated that role of word of mouth and television advertising was very important in providing information inputs to the consumers regarding sales promotion activities. This perception of retailers was supported by the consumer unaided recall of sales promotion schemes which were widely advertised. The research concludes with the discussion of the results, managerial implications limitation of the study and future research directions. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I. ABOUT THE DISSERTATION INTRODUCTION Advertisements convey brand differentiation and this may be important in several categories, which consist of several brands. In FMCG products like tea, coffee and detergents, â€Å"differentiation awareness† can be created by television advertising, but in certain categories there may be a need to demonstrate the effectiveness of brands. Differentiation with which consumers cannot â€Å"connect† may have a negative implication and if a brand â€Å"connects† consumers with its differentiation, it is likely to also differentiate itself in terms of getting identified with the consumer. A detergent or a washing machine, which claims â€Å"low water consumption† has to demonstrate this claim at a retail outlet especially given the fact that the quality of water varies across areas even in a specific geographical region. It is also essential that a good â€Å"differentiation proposition† result in a positive word-of-mouth. In a certain situation, the company may have two offerings in a product-line and there is a need to differentiate them clearly depending on the target segments involved. This is a complex situation where differentiation decides the growth of the brand and the perceived difference between the offerings. An added layer to the complexity is the same brand name being used for the offerings. Fairness cream is a category in which the benefit is the fairness of the complexion. A brand like Fair and Lovely built over the years still has a strong association with the category but under tremendous pressure from competitive brands and the most important criteria which these brands is the herbal touch associated with them. Herbal ingredients are becoming popular with consumers in several categories and personal care in India has a strong tradition of herbal care. Fair and Lovely had to launch its herbal variant (it used the same brand probably because of the brand equity built up over the years) . The interesting fact is the differentiation being conveyed by advertising. The original version uses an aspiration route in which the brands ultimate benefit is success through confidence. Estimates based on Chinas current per capita Consumption, the Indian FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. The dominance of Indian markets by unbranded products, change in eating habits and the increased affordability of the growing Indian population presents an opportunity to makers of branded products, who can convert  consumers to branded products. Penetration level in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low. The contrast is particularly striking between the rural and urban segments the average consumption by rural households is much lower than their urban counterparts. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated markets, which are likely to expand as the income levels rise. This provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in the form of a vastly untapped market. Moreover, per capita consumption in most of the FMCG categories (including the high penetration categories) in India is low as compared to both the developed markets and other emerging economies. A rise in per capita consumption, with improvement in incomes and affordability and change in tastes and preferences, is further expected to boost FMCG demand. Growth is also likely to come from consumer upgrading, especially in the matured product categories. CHAPTER 2 I. LITERATURE REVIEW Impact of Effective Advertisement on Consumer Attitude Dr. F.R. Alexander Pravin Durai By going through this article I have come across some points which you should look upon. If you want to read the article it is present in the appendix. Following are some points:- Advertising is the only direct method which helps to reach masses of potential buyers. Advertising, being dynamic, changes with changing methods of distribution and consumption. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements playa major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and · also the consumption pattern of the society in general. Thus, the impact leads to cultural and social changes to a great extent. Why is there a need of advertising? Advertising is a way of communicating information to the consumer which enables him or her to compare and choose from the products and services available. Advertising is the most economical means by which a manufacturer or an Institutional body can communicate to an audience whether to sell a product or promote a cause of social welfare. Essentials of Effective Advertisement-the writer thinks that there are 4 important things for an advertisement to be effective. They are importance of claim, believable, uniqueness and repetition. The advertiser must constantly assess the situation to choose the right environment and ideal time for an advertisement to be launched. Some of the situations are as follows:- When there is a favorable primary demand of particular product. When there is a distinctive product differentiation from other competitive brands. When mass market is penetrated. In order to ensure that the advertisements reach the target consumers in a most effective way and gets right response from them, it has to be ensuring that such advertisements are presented in the right way. The following steps on the part of the consumer may ensure that the advertisements are on the right track. Getting attracted towards the advertisements. Listening and observing the contents of the advertisements in full. Continuous watching of the same over a period. Comparing the advertisements of similar products. Making a trial purchase as follow up activity. Assessing the level of utility of the product individually. Ascertaining the level of utility derived with other similar consumers. In the article Dr. Alexander Told about a model which exemplifies the attitude or response of a consumer to an advertisement. Techniques of advertising for Fast Moving Consumer Goods Dr. Archi Mathur- Assistant lecturer, Department of Management Studies, National Law University, Jodhpur Dr. HK Bedi- Professor, Dean, Department of Management Studies, National Law University, Jodhpur This article shows how an advertiser can use different techniques of advertisements to show FMCG products. The techniques are as follows: Value added ads- In addition to providing information about the product; Value-added advertising transforms a product into something more appealing to consumers than the physical object produced in the factory. Therefore, it is a missing link between brand attributes and the customer perception, between product features and need fulfillment, .between benefits and values. Comparative ads- the advertiser compares the 2 brands of the same product category. The ad can be copied as the Pepsi and sprite example in the case. They have used the same story but both have them had a different approach. Informative ads- these ads are used to provide information to the consumer about different products and services. Health and Hygiene ads- these ads show that the product is taking care of the consumers health. It is emphasizing of the physical attribute of the product. What does the product do? How does it help you? The ad tells you all. These are some of the techniques. Lifestyle ads- Another way to. nave an impact on the consumers mind is portraying the life-style of a successful person. Humorous ads- Humor in the advertisement is normally kept in order to create a light, jovial and likely kind of an atmosphere Demographic ads- these ads are meant for different segments based on age, sex etc. Farex Cereal Food for infants is an advertisement targeted directly towards the infants, as it comprises a healthy food for them. It is also targeted indirectly towards the mother. Packaging ads- Advertisement is trying to lure the customers to buy their products on the basis of the way they are brought in front of the consumers eyes ie. Packaging. Dabur has brought in different flavors in the market of fruit juice. E.g. Mango, Pineapple, Orange, Mixed Fruit Jete. All these are in different packages, i.e. 50 ml, 1000 ml, etc. They claim that unlike other juices, which have preservatives in them, these products are without preservatives. Hence, the punch line is Real Fruit Juice. Price ads- Marketers also lure the customers by showing in an advertisement that a product is available at a lesser price without any compromise on the standard. Cadbury India advertised the 5-Star chocolate by offering 30% more chocolate in its 5-Star bar for the same price. Celebrity ads- Celebrities are mainly used in the advertisement either to lure the rural people in buying a particular product or in forcing the young generation to buy the products. This is also called endorsement advertising.,{t is also used in portraying that a particular product is best inqtJality because a person who is also very well known in his/her field endorses it. The impact of these stars in advertisements enables the company to increase its sale. CHAPTER 3 I. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY II. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The main objectives of the study are: 1. To assess current consumer sales promotion schemes in the market 2. To assess how consumers differentiate the products based on advertisements 3. To get an insight into retailers views regarding the schemes being offered in toilet soap category, and consumer perceptions 4. To study consumer perceptions regarding various schemes in this category and responses toward them. 5. To study the various methods of differentiation. 6. To analyze the methodology adopted by companies to target end consumers. 7. To address basic business questions like: Do companies have the right product/service to offer? How companies reach their customers? How the buying power can be created? To prepare new business strategies RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology: Technique used for the survey is questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews. In order to address the above questions an exploratory study was conducted. The idea was to probe and get deeper insight into sales promotion scenario in toilet soap market and to tap perceptions of retailers and consumers. In order to address above mentioned objectives (i) study of secondary sources was carried out, 10(ii) in-depth interview of six retailers was undertaken and 11(iii) structured questionnaire was designed to seek consumer responses. Convenience sampling was used for both retailers as well as consumer studies. Six retailers ranging from small kirana store to supermarket were approached. All the retailers were located in the Noida. The respondents for consumer study were postgraduate students in the age group of 19-24 belonging to middle and upper middle and upper class. The total respondents were 30 in number. They were residing in hostel or as PG hence sole decision-makers for t his category. Also this age-group being more experimental and likely to be more deal prone, so their perceptions, preferences would give some insights to companies planning sales promotions targeted at them. Scope and Limitations: The geographical scope of the study was restricted to the NOIDA city due to time and resource constraints. The study being exploratory in nature, the sample size was restricted to 30 consumers (student group) and 6 retailers. Focus being mainly on in-depth probing, the generalizations drawn are only indicative and not conclusive. CHAPTER 3 I. FMCG AN INTRODUCTION II. INDIAN CONTEXT III. MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IV. EVOLUTION AND CHARECTERSTICS FMCG -FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS BRIEF DECRIPTION OF INDIA FMCG MARKET MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN FMCG: According to Estimates based on Chinas current per capita Consumption, the Indian FMCG market is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. The dominance of Indian markets by unbranded products, change in eating habits and the increased affordability of the growing Indian population presents an opportunity to makers of branded products, who can convert consumers to branded products. Penetration level in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low. The contrast is particularly striking between the rural and urban segments the average consumption by rural households is much lower than their urban counterparts. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated markets, which are likely to expand as the income levels rise. This provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in the form of a vastly untapped market. Moreover, per capita consumption in most of the FMCG categories (including the high penetration categories) in India is low as compared to both the developed markets and other emerging economies. A rise in per capita consumption, with improvement in incomes and affordability and change in tastes and preferences, is further expected to boost FMCG demand. Growth is also likely to come from consumer upgrading, especially in the matured product categories EVOLUTION:  § 1950s-80s Low Investment in the sector Low purchasing power Govts emphasis on small scale sector HLL and other companys urbane focus  § Post liberalization Entry of MNCs Focus shifted to getting to rural consumer first Others, like Nestle, remained with the urban population Latest fad to hit the market is the ‘sachet bug.  § Mushrooming of regional brands Nirma enters and changes the focus to ‘Value for Money in the 70s Post liberalization, Jyothi Laboratories, ‘Ghari Detergent and ‘Anchor toothpaste giving the nation-wide brands a run for their money. CHARECTERSTICS: FORECAST 2010:  § Rural and semi-urban  § 128 million population thrice the urban  § Market size growth from 48k to 100k Crores (Growth of 50% at 10%CAGR)  § Increase penetration from the current less than 1%  § Problems in the rural sector * Low per capita disposable incomes * Large number of daily wage earners * Acute dependence on vagaries of monsoon * Seasonal consumption * Poor infrastructure roads and power supply  § Urban  § Market 16.5k to 35k Crores (Growth of 100% at 20%CAGR)  § Intense competition severe pressure on margins Focus on newer products, such as fruit juices Source: Assocham Report ‘Future Prospects of FMCG CHAPTER 5 I. UNDERSTANDING DIFFRENTIATION II. TYPES OF DIFFRENTIATION III. THE INDIAN CONTEXT I. II. UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENTIATION: Differentiation is the process of adding a set of meaningful and valued differences that distinguish a companys offering from those of its competitors. Differentiation is strongest when it satisfies all of the following criteria: 1. Important: the difference delivers a highly valued benefit to a sufficient number of buyers 2. Distinctive: the difference can be delivered in a clear way 3. Superior: the difference is a better way of obtaining a benefit 4. Pre-emptive: the difference cannot be easily copied 5. Affordable: the buyer can afford to pay for the difference 6. Profitable: the company will earn a return by maintaining the difference BRAND loyalty in fast moving consumer goods categories is a topical issue, with several brands resorting to price cuts across categories. More importantly, price cuts or sales promotion by themselves do not seem to have done much for brands in terms of sustaining brand loyalty. They may attract consumers in the short run: consumers may stock the brands and consumers new to the brand may try it. But over a period of time, a brands value may get diluted in consumers psyche, and will eventually lose a strong base of consumers. The following are some aspects of marketing mix elements and consumer behavior which could contribute to brand loyalty. Product differentiation If the products are differentiated in their characteristics and this difference is perceivable, there are chances of brand loyalty being formed based on satisfaction with greater performance or fit of product with needs. In this case, loyalty is driven by functional or symbolic benefits. Functional benefits would be specific tangible features of the product whereas symbolic benefits would be intangibles such as brand personality and `hedonistic value of purchase. Price differentiation If the price differentiation in the market is perceivable, price-led loyalty might exist in the market. Price-led loyalty is practised by supermarkets, airline companies and FMCG brands, which come out with frequent sales promotions based on freebies. Alternatively, price might be taken as an indicator of brand quality, and the customer might go in for higher priced options. Price-led loyalty has to be carefully considered with other marketing mix elements and the consumer should never perceive dilution, especially in low-priced bands. Hence, lower prices should create a sense of value through the product offerings as well as through communication. Branding activity If the category is organized and there is branding activity, there will be greater loyalty than there would have been if the category were unorganized. Branding activities can differentiate between brands on name, symbol, images and associations. Branding activity in this context refers to creating strong associations which will influence the consumers not only with regard to functional attributes but also with symbolism. Hamam soaps portrayal of its pure ingredients with the child and mother imagery is a good example of one of these dimensions. Branding activities in a broad sense could range from advertising to sales promotion and public relations involving several aspects. III. The Indian context The following were the observations from the literature survey and the examples chosen from the Indian context. The factors indicate that there will be a large segment of consumers for whom price-led loyalty will dominate. Hence there will be strong behavioural loyalty in the segment and only weak attitudinal loyalty. There is thus spurious loyalty in this sector. There is a moderate level of symbolic and functional differentiation which has been exploited by strong brands to build a loyal following. Examples of this include brands such as Dove, Ponds Dreamflower talcum powder, Gold Flake, Wills Navy Cut, Amul and Cadbury. These brands have probably built strong attitudinal loyalty through their brand personality and other brand building efforts. In the FMCG sector, brand habit is high whereas attitudinal loyalty is low. As creating attitudinal loyalty based on functional differentiation is difficult, symbolic differentiation is the key. Building strong brand personalities and associated symbolic benefits is important for crafting customer loyalty. The factors discussed cannot be treated in isolation: they are to provide a synergy to result in brand loyalty. The combination of these factors and the timing of the combination is the topical challenge which marketers face in an environment where loyalty is slowly eroding. Local challengers Some of the most successful FMCG brands in 2002 came, not from the stables of a Hindustan Lever and a Colgate, but from obscure regional players such as Kaleesuwari Refineries, Parakh Foods, Anchor Switchboards and Kanpur Detergents. Over the past couple of years, brands such as Gold Winner and Gemini in refined oils, Anchor White in toothpastes and Ghari in detergents have managed to sustain double digit growth rates, even as the market leaders have struggled to hold on to single digit growth rates for their brands. Yes, the comparison is unfair, as the local brands had a minuscule base to start with. But these brands have demonstrated it is not impossible for a new challenger to break into the traditional bastion of one or two large FMCG players. Traditionally, large FMCG categories in India have been dominated by just one or two players, who rule the roost by dint of their sheer financial muscle and distribution reach. But, of late, successful regional brands have been finding chinks in their armour. And how! Aggressive pricing In the edible oils market, as national players were forced to hike their selling prices in response to rising commodity prices, both Gemini and Gold Winner have used aggressive pricing to woo consumers away from the national brands. Packed tea too, has seen similar trends. The limited differentiation in grocery and the flexibility offered by a restricted area of operations have stood these companies in good stead. Anchor White, among the few debutants in the toothpaste market to garner a significant share, first wooed the retail trade with high distribution margins, and then used rock-bottom prices to lure consumers into trying the product. Though none of these companies can match the market leaders in adspend, they have used focused regional and local advertising to draw consumers attention to their brands. The mushrooming of local and regional media has undoubtedly helped the local players milk the most from their ad budgets. Banking on `power brands While the local brands have been adding to their brand portfolios, the market leaders have largely stayed off new product launches. In keeping with its power brand strategy, Hindustan Levers marketing strategies in 2002 revolved around rejigging and relaunching established brands such as Lifebuoy, Rin, Surf and Vim. The company phased out brands such as Sunlight in detergents, and Jai in toilet soaps, so as to focus better on its 30 power brands. The strategy appears to have worked, as brands such as Lifebuoy and Rin have moved into a higher growth trajectory after the relaunch. In fact, HLLs power brand strategy has found a few followers in the FMCG market, with companies such as Godrej Consumer also announcing plans to focus on a clutch of key brands. Streamlining and spend While the power brand strategy has helped the leading players put their marketing prowess behind their most important brands, it has not really helped them save on ad spend. For most FMCG companies, advertising and promotion spends in 2002 grew faster than their sales. In high penetration categories such as soaps, detergents and toothpastes, marketing efforts of the players revolved around persuading existing consumers to use more of the product or to upgrade to a higher-priced brand. The slew of 100 gm free for every 150 gm offers in toothpastes and the series of promos on the 2 kg packs of premium detergents were both intended to induce existing consumers of a product to pep up their usage of the brand. Companies operating in relatively low-penetration categories such as chocolates, shampoos and skin creams tailored their marketing strategies to bringing in new users, through scaled-down versions of their brands in affordable pack sizes. The low-priced Chocostik, a liquid chocolate in a small-sized pack, launched by Nestle India, has helped pep up the companys topline and is now a large contributor to the companys revenues. Nestle India is now trying out a similar small-sized Rs 5 pack for Maggi noodles. Shampoos have been among the few FMCG categories to register a positive growth rate in 2002, and growth in this category has been driven mainly by sachet packs and by scaled-down 50 ml bottles priced at less than Rs 10. Overall, the FMCG slowdown of the past three years has served a useful purpose. At one level, it has made sure that the dominant players in the market no longer enjoy unlimited pricing power, as they have in the past. There now appears to be a greater effort on the part of the players to hold selling prices and look at their own operations to save on cost. At another level, the emergence of the regional challengers has made sure that consumers of FMCG products have a few more choices in their purchases of essentials. Is selling soap the same as selling a TV? It isnt. The difference is how the particular product is sold and more importantly, how is it distributed. India is a unique market, where the manufacturers who deliver products at the doorstep, which is the ideal way to deliver anything, spoil our consumers. We have an extremely evolved distribution mechanism for most products. Different products are sent to the consumer differently. Depending on the number, the price of the product and the complexity of the selling process, they may vary from direct selling to selling through a channel that may have as many as four levels between the manufacturer and the consumer. A look at a few of them will show what it means to be a sales person of that product. Most FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) products are not hard-sold to the end consumers. Sales are built up largely by pull a technique using advertising and consumer promotion. The sell-in happens to the trade i.e. to various members of the distribution channel the CarryingForwarding/Super-stockist, the distributor, the wholesaler and most importantly the retailer, who is the interface with the end-consumer. This chain forms the most important link in getting the product economically to the consumers doorstep. A large MNC in the FMCG industry may be covering as many as 1 million outlets across the country with the help of thousands of distributors. Even a mid-sized company covers at the least 1 lakh outlets. Factoring in the vagaries of operating in more than 25 different states, each with its own sales tax complexities, different consumer needs, differences in the distribution structure, not forgetting differing octroi structures within a state, distribution is extremely complex in India. If the sell-in does not happen to this channel for whatever reason or is sub- optimal, a product is likely to fail. CHAPTER 3 I. UNDERSTANDING ADVERTISEMENT II. UNDERSTANDING SALES- PROMOTION III. CREATING DIFFRENTIATION THROUGH ADVERTISEMENT IV. PROBLEMS FACED BY MARKETERS I. UNDERSTANDING ADVERTISEMENTS Whether it is a serial in a regional satellite channel or a One Day International cricket match, there is a non-stop stream of advertisements, which clutter the commercial break. Well-established brands attempt to sustain brand recall while new ones try appealing to prospective consumers to get into their `consideration set. There are ads for children, housewives and youth. With advertising expenditure in the order of Rs. 8000 Crores per annum in the recent times and the proliferation of brands across categories, there is a strong need to consider the effectiveness of these advertisements. The idea is not to cease advertising but to consider how considering decisions would have to be considered with non-advertising alternatives. These non-advertising alternatives may also enable a brand to create and sustain consistent associations, which may be desirable in terms of long-term implications. A contemporary approach that creates a synergy between various aspects of a promotional mix (a dvertising included) provides a refreshing approach towards marketing communications. There may be several objectives of advertising and a promotional mix could be used in an innovative manner to address each of these objectives depending on the product category and target segment. Creating-brand-awareness When a new brand enters a category or creates a â€Å"new to the market† offering, it needs to create brand awareness. This would depend on whether the product is a consumable or a durable. The involvement level in a speci

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Change Within Characters in Sophocles Antigone Essay examples -- Soph

Change Within Characters in Sophocles' Antigone Antigone is about how King Creon rules that Polynices the traitor is not to be buried, but his sister Antigone defies the order. She is caught, and sentenced by Creon to be buried alive - even though she is betrothed to his son Haemon. After the blind prophet Tiresias proves that the gods are on Antigone's side, Creon changes his mind - but too late. He goes first to bury Polynices, but Antigone has already hanged herself. When Creon arrives at the tomb, Haemon attacks him and then kills himself. When the news of their death is reported, Creon's wife Eurydice takes her own life. Creon is alone in his life, full of guilt. The major characters in Antigone in my opinion are Antigone and Creon. Both undergo very major dramatic changes in their life. Antigone’s changes are mainly linked to the themes of the position of women as a Greek and the theme of the individual versus the state and divine law versus human law. Creon’s changes are mainly linked to the themes Conscience versus Law and the threat of tyranny. Both of their changes to themselves also inflict a change on the other. Both also undergo changes because of their pride and what actions it causes them to do. Pride and its effects are a central part of Antigone. It is a trait despised by the gods, who bring suffering to the proud, but to the Greek mind pride is also a part of greatness. Both Antigone and Creon are incredibly proud, making it impossible for either one of them to back down once they have taken a stand. Pride is part of what makes Antigone heroic. Creon realizes that in the end when he is completely alone in his life because everyone is dead. His pride had caused him to lose everyth... ... despicable if the order of the state demands it. Antigone's insistence on her desire in face of state power brings ruin into Thebes and to Creon specifically. With the death of his family, Creon is left utterly alone in the palace. His throne even robs him of his mourning, the king and his pace sadly shuttling off to a cabinet meeting after the announcement of the family's deaths. Antigone and Creon both undergo many changes to their personality, their beliefs, and their ways of living. But in the end it is only Creon who has the ability to change his life and keep on living it in a more respectable and more understanding way. But Creon has to live with the deaths and his fatal mistakes that he has made. Antigone has a very short time to adapt to the changes in her life but she does not see much point because she has been sentenced to a very slow death.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

things Fall Apart Essay -- essays research papers

CHAPTER 10 A very dramatic public ceremony is described in detail that involves meting out justice. On the village commons ppl gather and the rest of the village is behind them. Nine stools are placed for the egwugwu to sit. Egwugwu represent the spirits of their ancestors and are respected members of the community who can dispense justice in trials. Women stood on the edges of the circle. A gong is loudly blasted and the guttural voice of the egwugwu is heard. When he makes his appearance, it is very dramatic as he wears a fearful looking mask and pretends to scare the women. With him , nine other masked men emerge. Okonkwo's wives notice that one of the egwugwu walks with a springy step such as Okonkwo does. They also notice he is absent from where the elders sit. The leader of the egwugwu speaks some words. The hearing then begins. It involves a man named Uzowulu whose wife was taken away by him by her family. He wishes that either she return or they pay him his bride-price. The women's brother argues that she has been rescued because she is beaten every day and that she will return on the promise that he never hit her again. After the discussion the leader returns with a verdict. He tells Uzowulu to bring wine to his wife's family and beg his wife to return to him. He also expresses disgust at Uzowulu's cowardice in beating women and askes him to accept his brother-in-law's offer. The egwugwu and their system of justice are similar to Western society's notion of a fair public trial. The men who conduct the hearings are the senior members of the society, and have political as well as economic power, but they mask themselves to hide their identity, so that a fair judgment can be given. Here each party is given a chance to state their case and then the egwugwu leave to debate a verdict as well as a punishment or remuneration. The dismissive attitude one of the elders shows for a trial of this kind reveals the lack of power and respect that women had in this society. Not only does the women's brother speak for her, but she has no say in the verdict handed to her husband. Whether or not she wants to return is overlooked by the larger economic reason for her return. Her husband's hand is slapped for being so violent but other than that he is not punished for his crime, simply fined CHAPTER 11 One night, Ezinma and her mother are sitting in... ...anly fsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sd fsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sd ure i entually will

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Virtual Memory

Virtual Memory With today's modern technology, we need to ensure that our computers are able to run quick and with ease. In order to run programs with speed, Individuals need to ensure that they have sufficient memory to allow for programs running. Computers come with memory, but sometimes It Is not enough to run what Is needed or wanted. One way to ensure speed Is to use virtual memory. Virtual memory can be described as memory that emulates RAM, and allows programs to run as though the computer has more memory than It actually does.This Is a great benefit for Individuals who are running various programs at one time. According to Mr.. Stallings, he wrote â€Å"virtual memory allows for very effective multiprogramming and relives the user of the unnecessarily tight constraints of main memory† (p. 343, 2012). Using virtual memory is a good choice to help run programs on your system. There are two approaches to providing virtual memory in a system. They are paging and segmentati on. Paging is dividing the processes into very small fixed pages. When pages are loaded a page table is created.Segmentation is for varying of sizes. When segments are loaded a table is created for this process. A benefit is that paging and segmentation can be combined in memory management. Some benefits of using virtual memory are freeing up your systems RAM, cheaper than buying more RAM, and using either an external hard drive or USB thumb drives also gives you space to use. Freeing up your system's RAM is easy to do by closing out programs you are not using at the moment. This frees up space to be used by a program you are needed at the moment.RAM on some systems is not overly priced depending on the type. Individuals can spend a lot of money on upgrading their RAM if they are not careful with what they really need for their system. Two examples of virtual memory are an external hard drive or a USB thumb drive. Either of these can be used in connection to your system to give virt ual memory. Trying to run many programs at one time can cause your RAM to be full, and then no other programs can be started until others are closed. This is beneficial if you receive an error message stating memory Is low. Inning virtual memory is an alternative to buying more RAM for your system also. Stallings wrote â€Å"the addresses a program may use to reference memory are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to Identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically to the corresponding machine address† (p. 341 , 2012). If an Individual wants to change the size of their virtual memory, they can on their system. They can right click on their computer Icon, and click on properties.Click on the advanced settings tab, look down or the performance part and click settings. Your system will show a recommended amount of virtual memory, but the person can change It to what they feel Is needed. This is something that can be changed at any time just in case someone tries running on what they think is needed for their system. When installing and running programs, everyone would like their system to run quick. Having the right amount of RAM and virtual memory can help your system run smoothly and efficiently.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Ethnicity And Police Essay

September 4, 2005 six days after hurricane Katrina devastated the city of New Orleans, six New Orleans police officers loaded into the back of a Budget rental truck and stormed the Danziger Bridge in the eastern area of the city. The officers were responding to a call of shots fired and an officer was down, in reality police officers escorting a civilian convoy on the I-10 high rise made a distress call over the police radio of shots fired on the Danziger Bridge and made the impression that an officer was down. A group of at least nine officers were in the truck all from the 7th districts make shift station. Claimed once they approached the bridge they received gun fire from civilians, which made them open fire. Civilians on the bridge claim they were ambushed by the officers in the truck. The officers shot eight unarmed citizens fatally wounding two 17 year old James Brissette and 40 year old Robert Madison who was mentally disabled. The officers were wrong in doing so, because they did not verify any citizens carrying weapons nor did they identify themselves as police officers. The officers opened fire on the civilians under the assumption they were carrying weapons. By doing so the officers did not follow standard procedures (Nola, 2005). The New Orleans Police Department investigated the shootings internally, but victims of the shootings felt that justice was not served. The Bartholomew and Madison families who were the victims along with an outcry from citizens of New Orleans led the Federal Bureau of investigations to investigate the city’s police department. During the federal probe of the shootings, evidence was found that officers were not justified in the death of the two individuals, and the internal probe by investigators attempted to cover the evidence. Two years after the incident officers were arrested and indicted on murder charges, but the charges were dropped due to mishandling by the dist rict attorney’s office. Two weeks later the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigations  took over the case. Robert Faulcon along with five other police officers faced charges ranging from corruption, violation of civil rights, and weapons charges. Before the case went to trial the federal prosecution offered a series of plea bargains to the suspected officers because the case had been â€Å"cold† when they received it. On August 5, 2011 nearly six years after hurricane Katrina struck the city of New Orleans Robert Faulcon appeared in federal court, United States district judge Kurt Engelhart presided over the hearings (FBI, 2012). Robert Faulcon who fatally shot Robert Madison in the back with a shotgun testified that he never saw anyone on the bridge point a gun or fire at him, and that he never identified himself as a police officer or told Madison to stop. Two innocent people died and several others were wounded that day on the Danziger Bridge by the police officers whose jobs were to protect their lives of the innocent. After testimonies from prosecution and defense the former officers were found guilty on all charges. Robert Faulcon was sentenced to sixty five years in federal prison. Sergeant Kenneth Brown was sentenced to 40 years in prison, Sergeant Robert Gesivius also received 40 years in prison, and Officer Anthony Villavaso received a 38 year sentence. Sergeant Authur Kaufman who was the lead investigator on the case, received a six year sentence for covering up the crimes during the investigation, and one officer was exonerated of the charges (Chicago Citizen, 2010). An attorney for the Department of Justice described the case as â€Å"one of the most significant police misconduct incidents since the Rodney King beating.† The New Orleans police department has a long history of corruption and violence. With the prosecution of these officers citizens hope that this will end the final chapter. And that they can begin to trust the officers sworn to protect them. References (2010, December 15). Former New Orleans Police Officer Sentenced for Role in Danziger Bridge Shootings. Chicago Citizen – Chatham Southeast Edition. p. 3. (September 4, 2005). Police shoot eight on New Orleans bridge. Associated press. Retrieved from. http://www.nola.com/katrina/index.ssf/2005/09/police_shoot_8_on_new_orleans_b

Sunday, September 15, 2019

How to Succeed in (or Flunk Out of) College Essay

How to Succeed in (or flunk out of) College Everyone has hopes and dreams to succeed in college, but things don’t go as plan all the time. As a result it can cause you not reach your highest potential. It’s hard for some to make the transition from High School to College because having complete freedom to do whatever you like can be a task within itself. For example deciding when and how long you stay in a particular class and things of that nature. So there is much more to explain and guide you along how to make the best of your college experience and also succeed in the classroom. So let’s begin. Being successful in college is harder than you think; first you have to figure out which school best suit you as a person and the career of your choice. Then you must set up certain classes that are in respectful time frame that’s suitable for you and will help you attain your degree. Also you must learn where each class location around the college campus. Once you have achieved those tasks this is where the real work begins. Meaning preparing yourself for the long hours of studying and writing ten page term papers. In addition there are ways that you can fail in college also. For example, not being prepared for class and not being on time. Also not having your work done in the correct time frame it has to be done within. Also letting other things affect you meaning if you having problems with your roommates or partying too much and not making sure your studies are not taking care of before you do whatever that you want to do. In closing, there are plenty of ways to fail in college and plenty of ways to succeed also. Yes, you might be excited that you are able to come and go as you please but you also need to know when to have fun and when it’s time to hit those books and study. There is no step by step process because everyone is different and is able to do things that others may not be able to do. All things considered you can learn from people that been there and have been in your shoes and take the information that is giving you and used it in your own way.